The calculation of normal range for LDL cholesterol is part of the usual prevention exams that are performed in the Primary Care Consultation. The period between analytics will vary according to the patient’s clinical history. In patients with relatives who have high cholesterol values in the context of some familial dyslipidemia, and/or arteriosclerosis, the tests will be performed more frequently depending on the disorder and its severity.
The total cholesterol value should not exceed 200 mg/dl in blood. Between 200 and 240 mg / dl is considered normal-high and above 240 mg / dl high. The cardiovascular risk factors added to high cholesterol levels are the following:
- A family history of patients with premature cardiovascular disease (men under 55 and women 65).
- Age and sex
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Arterial hypertension
- Taking the contraceptive pill
- Overweight or obesity
In addition to the total cholesterol value, three other blood values must be calculated with which the health risk can be assessed for a person in a more precise way:
- The value of LDL cholesterol, which gives information about how much cholesterol is deposited in the wall of blood vessels. This value should not exceed 100 mg/dl, but may be below without problem. From 100 to 160 mg / dl is considered normal-high and above 160 mg / dL high.
- Secondly, the concentration of HDL, protective cholesterol should be calculated. As already mentioned: the higher the HDL cholesterol, the better. The concentration of HDL in the serum should be at least 35 mg/dl in men and 45 mg/dl in women.
- In addition, the value of triglycerides should be below 150 mg/dl. A normal-high value would be between 150 and 199 mg/dl. Triglyceride levels higher than 200-499 mg/dl are considered hypertriglyceridemia. A high triglyceride value would be above 500 mg / dL, with a risk of pancreatitis.
Triglycerides are fats that contain some foods but are also formed in the liver. Triglycerides circulate in the blood thanks to lipoproteins that are produced in the intestine and in the liver and transported to the tissues, to be used as a reserve of energy and to cover the metabolic needs of the muscles and the brain.
To reduce the levels of triglycerides in the blood: you have to control your weight, keep active, do not smoke, limit your alcohol intake and limit sugars and sugary drinks. Sometimes medication is also needed.
If triglycerides are increased, there is likely to be a metabolic disorder that requires further examination and treatment. In case of a very pronounced increase of triglycerides in the blood, it can also be associated with an increase in cholesterol concentration. The genetic causes that favor the increase of triglycerides, associated in some cases with increased cholesterol are; in cases of Combined Familial Hyperlipidemia, Familial Hypertriglyceridemia, Dysbetalipoproteinemia or Hyperchylomicronemia.
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